The Challenges of India’s Growing Population – Impact on Economy , Society  and Government Efforts to Control it

India is the becoming First most populous country in the world  with a population of over 1.4 billion people . The country’s population has been a topic of discussion for decades due to its sheer size and the challenges that come with managing such a large population . In this post , we will explore India’s population in detail , its growth rate , its impact on the economy and society and the government’s efforts to control it .


Population Growth Rate in India

India’s population has been growing at an alarming rate for the past few decades . In 1951 , the country’s population was around 361 million . It took just 40 years for India’s population to cross the one billion mark in 1991 . Since then , the population has continued to grow but at a slightly slower rate.

According to the United Nations , India’s population is expected to reach 1.5 billion by 2030 and 1.7 billion by 2050 . While the growth rate has slowed down in recent years , it still poses a significant challenge for the country . 

Impact on the Economy India’s

 population has a significant impact on the country’s economy . On one hand , it has provided a large labour force , which has helped drive economic growth and On the other hand it has also placed a significant burden on the country’s resources and infrastructure .

One of the biggest challenges is providing basic amenities like clean drinking water , sanitation and healthcare to such a large population . Despite significant progress in these areas , many Indians still lack access to these basic necessities .


Additionally India’s population has also led to high levels of competition for jobs , especially in urban areas. This has resulted in low wages and poor working conditions for many workers. 

Government Efforts to Control Population

Recognizing the challenges posed by a rapidly growing population , the Indian government has made significant efforts to control it . In the 1960s and 1970s, the government launched a family planning program , which focused on promoting birth control measures and educating people about the benefits of small families.

While the program had some success in reducing the fertility rate it also faced significant opposition from religious and cultural groups , which saw it as a threat to traditional family values .

In recent years , the government has shifted its focus to promoting education particularly for women . Studies have shown that educating women leads to a decline in fertility rates as they become more aware of the benefits of having small families and have more control over their reproductive health .



India’s population is undoubtedly one of the biggest challenges facing the country today. While it has provided a large labor force and contributed to economic growth ,it has also placed a significant burden on the country’s resources and infrastructure .

The government’s efforts to control population growth have had some success , but more needs to be done to address the root causes of the problem. Education, particularly for women , has been shown to be an effective way of reducing fertility rates and this should be a priority for policymakers going forward .

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By sushil

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